CIRIEC Nº 78 August 2013
Entrepreneurship and Social Economy
The need to take measures at the various levels of education to boost the creation of participative companies
Authors: Sonia Martín López, Josefina Fernández Guadaño, Paloma Bel Durán y Gustavo Lejarriaga Pérez de las Vacas
Keywords: Business creation, entrepreneurship, labour-managed firms, education, levels of education.
Econlit Keywords: L260, J540, M130.
In the current situation of the Spanish labour market, the option of self-employment seems to be an alternative to consider for both going back to work and entering the labour market for the first time. The option of creating a new firm faces obstacles and difficulties. Becoming an entrepreneur “in a network”, through a labour-managed firm (cooperative or employee owned company) or individual entrepreneurship, is a way to contribute to the revitalization of the economy, transform unfavourable economic circumstances into an opportunity, as demonstrated in previous recessions, and, above all, a way to reduce risk.Research shows that a lack of knowledge about this type of company is widespread, among university students as well. Consequently their image is not positive and conventional forms of company are preferred when setting up a new enterprise. It is necessary (but not sufficient) to generate a cultural environment in which being an entrepreneur is socially valued whatever legal form it takes. We must develop a culture of entrepreneurship at earlier levels of education, include specific subjects in the curriculum which are currently scarce or even non-existent, and set up support mechanisms.This paper seeks to establish the right research framework to generate a range of educational and training opportunities, based on cooperation between the different levels of education, to provide the impetus for the creation of cooperatives and employee-owned companies.
PRÓLOGO. Economía Social: Fuente indiscutible de empleo estable y de oportunidades
Authors: Engracia Hidalgo, secretaria de Estado de Empleo
Emprendimiento y Economía Social. Presentación del número
Authors: Adoración Mozas Moral
Theories of entrepreneurship and workers’ cooperatives – theoretical foundations and empirical evidence concerning the creation of workers’ cooperatives
Authors: Waldo E. Orellana Zambrano y Juan Martínez de Lejarza y Esparducer
Keywords: Cooperatives, workers’ cooperatives, companies, entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship, theory.
Econlit Keywords: L260, L290, M130, P130, J540.
Based on a review of the different theoretical arguments and main empirical works related to the creation of companies, this work aims to identify the theories that best explain the genesis and development of worker’s cooperatives, which in Spain are called associated labour cooperatives, and determine the main attributes of this type of cooperative from the perspective of independent entrepreneurs.The main propositions that emerge from this work are based on empirical argument from a study conducted in 44 associated labour cooperatives and 44 traditional capitalist firms in the region of Valencia (Spain), the latter serving as a control group.The findings suggest that some of the theories of what is known as the sociocultural approach to entrepreneurship provide the best explanation for the workers’ cooperative ventures and that the cooperative entrepreneur is characterized by attributes corresponding to the collective entrepreneur, networking entrepreneur and, in some respects, the informal entrepreneur.
Social entrepreneurs – an intercultural explanation
Authors: Andreea Apetrei, Domingo Ribeiro, Salvador Roig y Alicia Mas Tur
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship, culture, cultural traits, cultural dimensions, interculturality.
Econlit Keywords: A130, L260, M140, P330, Z130.
This research links the characteristics of social entrepreneurship and cultural traits. It highlights that some cultural traits create a more favourable environment for the development of social entrepreneurship and establishes a link between increased activity in the social economy and the dimensions proposed by Geert Hofstede. The investigation is based on two existing analyses: the Global Innovation Index ranking –a statistic recognized worldwide in this field – and Hofstede’s cultural Indices. All these data are correlated with the characteristics of social entrepreneurs. This study provides important insights and helps in understanding why some cultures are more involved in social activities and others less so. It highlights that cultural dimensions such as collectivism, femininity or a higher level of uncertainty do appear to have an influence on creating social entrepreneurial activities.
The motives of cooperative entrepreneurs in Aragon
Authors: Millán Díaz-Foncea y Carmen Marcuello
Keywords: Entrepreneur, cooperative society, company creation, motives, Aragon.
Econlit Keywords: L260, P130, J540, M130.
In the current situation, both the academic community and government bodies are paying particular attention to entrepreneurs. In this area, the figure of the cooperative entrepreneur contributes a new perspective by bringing new values to the typical business operations conducted by entrepreneurs. The present study centres on the main motives of cooperative entrepreneurs, addressing three aspects: the dichotomy between opportunity-based and necessity-based entrepreneurship, the motives for setting up the company and choosing the legal form of a cooperative, and the motives adduced by the entrepreneurs themselves. It focuses specifically on entrepreneurs who set up cooperatives in the Spanish region of Aragon between January 2008 and May 2011.
A study of academic entrepreneurship in social economy formats, analysing university spin-off cooperatives
Authors: Elies Seguí-Mas, Faustino Sarrión-Viñes, Guillermina Tormo-Carbó y Víctor Oltra Comorera
Keywords: Academic entrepreneurship, spin-off, start-up, cooperative, TBF.
Econlit Keywords: I230, M130, O320, P130.
In recent years, setting up spin-off companies has become an efficient way to transfer technology and research results to the marketplace. This study found that it is not very usual to set up spin-offs as cooperatives, since most companies of this type take the form of limited or public limited companies, and therefore concentrates on analysing the features that define and differentiate them.The results obtained from the case studies and an interview show that human capital is more important than financial capital in this type of company, they are concentrated in the ICT sector, most are based in the Andalusia region of Spain and they show no great differences in the motives for setting up the spin-off.
The size of the cooperative sector in the European Union: an explanation from economic growth theory
Authors: Inmaculada Carrasco e Inmaculada Buendía-Martínez
Keywords: Cooperatives, economic growth, social capital, entrepreneurship capital, human capital.
Econlit Keywords: O430, O520, E200, L260, L300.
The pillars of economic growth in the Western economies have been weakened by the current economic crisis. Some of the political answers entail an economic reactivation based on promoting entrepreneurial initiative. Although there is an abundance of literature on this topic, the study of company structures has received little attention. Among these, collective entrepreneurship, in general and cooperatives in particular are especially relevant in light of their greater resistance and flexibility in the context of a crisis such as the current one. This article aims to gain a deeper knowledge of the factors that explain the size of the cooperative sector using growth factors as its theoretical framework. The contribution of this paper rests on its international comparative perspective, surpassing microeconomic perspectives of entrepreneurial behaviour, based on 2009-2010 data from twenty-nine European nations.
Self-employment: a way to stay in work in a changing society
Authors: J. Antonio Ariza Montes, Mariano Carbonero Ruz, Belén Gutiérrez Villar y M. Carmen López Martín
Keywords: Self-employment, self-employed, logistic regression, labour market, unemployment.
Econlit Keywords: J210, J230, J640.
Self-employment has a significant presence in Spain and performs a critical role in the country’s economic and social system. Because of its importance, self-employment can be decisive in a situation like the present. Thus, in the context of economic crisis in which all the economies find themselves (to a greater or lesser extent), several questions may be asked: Does this situation affect the self-employed and employees in the same way? Is self-employment a way to solve unemployment? Does self-employment act countercyclically and therefore constitute a safe haven against the changes that have occurred?This article aims to answer such questions. To achieve its proposed objectives, multiple logistic regression models were designed to explore the circumstances that determined self-employment versus paid employment at two different moments: before the crisis and now. The data used to build the models were taken from the Economically Active Population Survey (EAPS) microdata files. The results confirm that self-employment provides a job opportunity in times of crisis.
The “social economy” effect on business survival
Authors: Santi Cantarero Sanz, Miguel González-Loureiro y Francisco Puig Blanco
Keywords: Social economy, venture survival, crisis, Cox’s regression.
Econlit Keywords: P130, L190, C120, D200.
The current economic situation has brought to the fore the steadily increasing rates of job destruction and company mortality. Set against this fact, the question has arisen as to whether “social-economy-based” forms of management have an impact on the venture’s competitiveness. This study aims to analyse such an impact (differences in entrepreneurial performance as a result of “social economy” versus other models) on enterprise survival rates longitudinally (1986-2012). A statistical technique based on a duration model (Cox’s regression) was used. The sample comprised most of the ventures established in the Region of Valencia during the period under study (138,773 enterprises). The variables analysed were the managerial model and the sector of activity, controlling for the year of establishment.The results show that the survival of “social-economy-based” forms is different to that of other managerial models and that under some conditions the risk of failure of the former is significantly lower. Furthermore, from a temporal perspective there is evidence that this positive effect continues over time.
The Spanish economy, its evolution and recovery scenarios
Authors: José Antonio Martínez Álvarez, Pedro Cortiñas Vázquez y Cristina Sánchez Figueroa
Keywords: Life cycle, Modigliani, economic growth, rational expectations.
Econlit Keywords: E020, E100, E620, O110.
This paper presents forecasts for the Spanish economy from 2013 to 2019, handling different scenarios for economic recovery and future development. These scenarios depend to a great extent on current and future policies. The estimates are calculated from ad-hoc simulations using a general demand equilibrium model based on the life-cycle hypothesis of Ando and Modigliani and on Hall’s model of Friedman’s permanent income hypothesis with rational expectations. This paper offers an outlook based on a dynamic macroeconomic scenario. It also considers some recommendations at national and supranational level for the Spanish economy to perform well.
Endogenous development and anti-crisis policies
Authors: Josep Mª Jordán Galduf, Isidro Antuñano Maruri y Víctor Fuentes Prósper
Keywords: Endogenous development, regional and local policy, European Union, national and decentralised government bodies.
Econlit Keywords: H700, O200, R500.
This paper argues that boosting regional and local development is an essential component of action to favour economic recovery and that economic growth policy must therefore be based on supply-side measures to improve the situation of the existing productive fabric in every part of the country. On this basis, it examines the role of a policy of endogenous development, shows the regional and local diversity of Europe and studies the challenges currently facing Spain and the opportunities offered by the Europe 2020 strategy.
Assessing research performance in Spain: sexennia in the areas of economics and business studies
Authors: Maite Cancelo Márquez y María Bastida Domínguez
Keywords: Assessment, evaluation, research, economics, business studies.
Econlit Keywords: Z00
The sexenio de investigación or six-yearly research assessment was initially designed as a bonus to promote research among the Spanish university community. However, it has now lost its character as a productivity bonus and has become a requirement for pursuing a university career. In this new situation it is essential to have a transparent assessment process with objective criteria, known in advance, that reflect the particularities of different scientific fields. This paper examines the differences in research evaluation results in the areas of economics and business studies. It also compares them with other areas of social sciences and law, and so with other fields of knowledge. Based on the findings of this study, it concludes by analysing various reasons that suggest the advisability of undertaking a thorough review of the assessment methods, as well as some recommendations in this regard.