CIRIEC Nº 74 April 2012
Economic and Financial Aspects of the Social Economy
Drawing up Satellite Accounts for Social Economy Enterprises. A case study of the Asturian Economy in 2005
Authors: Aydee Hurtado Garcés, Carmen Ramos Carvajal y Esteban Fernández Vázquez
Keywords: Social economy, National Accounts, Satellite Accounts, Regional Accounts of Asturias, Cooperatives, Employee-owned Companies, Mutual Societies, Associations, Foundations.
Econlit Keywords: EO10, E290, O180, P130, R150.
The main aim of this paper is to build the satellite accounts of the Social Economy enterprises in Asturias for 2005, in order to ascertain the chief macroeconomic dimensions so that the importance, strengths and weaknesses of this sector may be explored. These accounts are drawn up according to type of activity and enterprise.A prior descriptive analysis of the Social Economy of Asturias has been made, both at the level of sector enterprises and the employment it generates; likewise, a geographical study of where these third sector enterprises are located and their characteristics has also been undertaken. To enrich the data, a comparative study of the importance of the Social Economy in relation to the “rest” of the economy of Asturias and with the Social Economy nationally was also made.
Tax burden on Spanish cooperatives between 2003 and 2008
Authors: Rafael Molina Llopis
Keywords: Cooperative, tax burden, Corporation Tax, Effective Tax Rate.
Econlit Keywords: P130, H250, H710, K340.
According to official figures, cooperatives accounted for around 60% of the total jobs in the social economy in 2008. The importance of their role in the economy together with their special characteristics and social role has traditionally enabled them to enjoy special fiscal benefits.The aim of this paper is to quantify the average tax burden supported by Spanish cooperative surpluses during the six years from 2003 to 2008, by analysing whether their geographical location or the activity they engage in give rise to important differences between their effective types; all this taking into account the existence of special fiscal regimes due to territoriality and the multiplicity of regulations relating to cooperatives which the Autonomous Communities generate.Additionally, the study aims to assess the impact of fiscal incentives provided for under cooperative company taxation.
Sustainability of teams of volunteers
Authors: Fernando de Llano Paz
Keywords: Social economy, nonprofit sector, youth associations, voluntary work, social support, assessment, AHP.
Econlit Keywords: A130, L310, M590
The main productive factor of nonprofit youth associations is the work done by volunteers. The social support provided by the host association facilitates sustainability and continuance in the team of volunteers. However the resources companies have are limited, so it becomes necessary to set up a model which enables volunteers to be ranked. The criteria to be taken into consideration for this assessment will respond to the mission, vision and values of the association. AHP -Analytic Hierarchy Process- is a simple, understandable and useful model which makes it possible to break the problem down and establish a hierarchy. The assessment process gains in objectivity and rationality thanks to the individual scoring of each element compared to each of the other elements. The final ranking facilitates decision taking on the allocation of resources in relation to social support.
Credit union deposit insurance: an impact analysis of a financing system with risk-adjusted premiums
Authors: Pilar Gómez Fernández-Aguado y Antonio Partal Ureña
Keywords: Deposit guarantee systems, credit unions, risk-adjusted financing, market discipline.
Econlit Keywords: P130, G280, G210, G320, G010.
The important changes taking place in the regulation and supervision of the global financial system have given rise to an important set of measures aimed at increasing its robustness in the medium and long term. Among these, the reform of the deposit guarantee system as a key element of safety nets and, therefore, of global financial stability. The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing debate on the reform of international financing of deposit insurance systems, arising from the latest global crisis, and to provide empirical evidence on the quantitative impact that the application of risk-based models of contribution to the Deposit Guarantee Fund would have on Spanish credit unions.
Cooperative societies and private capital companies in the Valencian Community: comparative analysis of their economic and financial structure
Authors: José Pozuelo Campillo, Pedro Carmona Ibáñez y Julián Martínez Vargas
Keywords: Cooperatives, analysis, SMEs, social economy.
Econlit Keywords: A130, M140, M200.
This paper focuses on the study of cooperative societies, given their marked social nature and their strong tradition in the Valencian Community. Starting from the financial data provided by an economic and financial database for the period 2006-2007, we carried out a comparative analysis of cooperative enterprises and private capital ones, in an attempt to determine and explain, where appropriate, the differences in solvency, profitability, indebtedness, tax burden and activity, and at the same time, we offer a diagnosis that makes clear the strengths and weaknesses of this vital area of the industrial fabric of the Valencian Community.
Economic and financial situation of Catalan fruit and vegetable cooperatives. An empirical study applied to the province of Tarragona
Authors: Vanessa Campos Climent y Lluís Carreras Roig
Keywords: Fruit and vegetable cooperatives, economic and financial analysis, ratio analysis, Tarragona.
Econlit Keywords: M410, P130, Q140.
Fruit and vegetable cooperatives are major players in Mediterranean agriculture and play an important role in its development in Catalonia. This paper aims to analyse the economic and financial situation of this kind of cooperative in the province of Tarragona from an empirical study based on the analysis of the annual accounts for the years 2005 to 2009. A study has been carried out on the composition of their assets and liabilities, the main items in their profit and loss accounts and the principal economic and financial ratios of these entities using a dynamic analysis and an analysis based on scatter diagrams using linear regression. In this study it will be shown that these cooperatives find themselves in an unfavourable economic and financial situation, aggravated by the economic crisis and that size is not a determining factor for the improvement of said situation.
The role of women in agricultural cooperatives in Teruel
Authors: Luisa Esteban Salvador, Ana Gargallo Castel y Fco. Javier Pérez Sanz
Keywords: Cooperatives, women, executive board, agricultural sector.
Econlit Keywords: A130, M140, Q190.
The main aim of this paper is to analyse the presence of women in different spheres of the agricultural cooperative enterprises in the province of Teruel, where the preponderance of the agricultural sector is paramount. This research compares, firstly, the extent to which the participation of women as against men differs both in employment and in the governing and representative bodies of cooperatives in the rural agricultural environment in Teruel. Subsequently the presence of women in agricultural cooperatives is compared with other sectors and the existence of statistically significant differences is confirmed for some of the variables analysed. This study contributes to the literature on gender and cooperatives in the agricultural sector, an aspect which has hardly been studied in previous works and which enhances the knowledge on the value provided by the presence of women in agricultural sector cooperatives.
Social responsibility and transparency on-line of NGOs: analysis of the case of Spain
Authors: María del Mar Gálvez Rodríguez, María del Carmen Caba Pérez y Manuel López Godoy
Keywords: Social responsibility, transparency, NGO, Internet.
Econlit Keywords: L310, M140.
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are one of the groups which arouse the greatest public interest due to the social and economic impact of their actions in their environment. Among the information required by stakeholders, there is a growing interest in information on Social Responsibility (SR) in this sector. Similarly, the Internet is considered a key tool for spreading information.Based on these precedents and focusing on the context of Spain, this study pursues a dual objective, on the one hand the analysis of on-line transparency of the SR of NGOs and, on the other hand, the study of the influence of determining factors in the use of the Internet for the spreading of SR such as: size, age, the activity of the organization and gender diversity in the governing body.
Social responsibility, financial crisis and accounting standards in Spanish political parties
Authors: Ángel Rodríguez López y Esther Fidalgo Cerviño
Keywords: Social responsibility, accounting standards, financial crisis, political parties, public financing, accountability.
Econlit Keywords: E630, D640, G200, H600, I310, M 410.
This paper attempts to clarify and analyse certain issues that have been raised in relation to the possible need to draw up, develop and implement a standardized accounting model for political parties in Spain. Said sectorial and specific accounting regulations could mean a significant and vital stimulus for consolidating and boosting the inclusion of political groupings in the social environment to which they belong, thus increasing transparency and credibility of all their actions in the financial and economic spheres, especially in these times of severe financial crisis, when good management and availability of the money received from state public funds, becomes an unquestionable priority.
Possibilities and applications of Web 2.0: a case study applied to the social economy
Authors: Adoración Mozas Moral y Enrique Bernal Jurado
Keywords: Social Economy, Web 2.0, business models, strategy.
Econlit Keywords: M100, O300, L100, O320, O330, P320, P130, L300.
In the current information society, so-called Web 2.0 has involved a revolution in every sense and, therefore, it is the time to consider business strategies in that context. Nowadays, Web 2.0 enables distance shared working areas, marketing understood on a large scale, e-administration, e-commerce, the use of social networks, on-line staff training/refresher courses, branding, the Streisand effect (to try to silence complaints), microblogging, etc., and all this is evolving at an unstoppable rate towards what is known as the global society and the “cloud”.Evidently, the Social Economy is not outside of this revolution. In this study we shall attempt, on the one hand, to define the possibilities that Web 2.0 offers companies and the business models that currently can be made by using it. On the other hand, we shall analyse how the Social Economy has taken up Web 2.0. In this sense we shall avail ourselves in particular of the experience that CEPES-Andalucía, the Confederation of Social Economy Entities in Andalusia, has had in relation to the use of Web 2.0 in its organization.
Analysis of the Pension Inclusion Plan: protection, inclusion and equality
Authors: Alejandro Calabria, Analía Calero, Vanesa D’Elia, Julio Gaiada y Sergio Rottenschweiler
Keywords: Pensions, pension fund moratorium, poverty, distribution.
Econlit Keywords: D300, D600, H500, H550, I300.
Since the end of the nineties coverage of the elderly population in Argentina had shown a downward trend. In order to tackle this problem, a Pension Inclusion Programme was implemented in 2005 which enabled the elderly to avail themselves of a payment facilities scheme in order to have access to pension benefits. In this context, the aim of this paper is to assess its results as far as extending cover and its effects on poverty and income distribution. Among the main results, it was found that the Plan enabled the inclusion of 2.3 million beneficiaries, it contributed to a reduction of poverty in the elderly from 27.9% (2003) to 3.3% (2009) and achieved a reduction in the Gini pension distribution from 0.27 (2004) to 0.18 (2010).