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CIRIEC Nº 104 March 2022

The role of the Social Economy in the economic recovery after COVID-19

Presentación del monográfico ‘El papel de la Economía Social en la recuperación y reconstrucción económica tras la Covid-19’

Authors: Juan Francisco Juliá Igual, Enrique Bernal Jurado e Inmaculada Carrasco

Social economy and economic recovery after the COVID-19 crisis

Authors: Juan Francisco Juliá Igual, Enrique Bernal Jurado, Inmaculada Carrasco Monteagudo

Keywords: COVID-19, recuperation, Social Economy, Next Generation.

Econlit Keywords: H8, O2

DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21734.

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Abstract

The crisis derived from the covid-19 pandemic has highlighted the need to improve and review our model of economy and society. It has been evidenced the importance of giving greater relevance to science, the use of knowledge, and the incorporation of values related to sustainability and solidarity. Based on the financial resources provided by the European Union, the member states have designed plans aimed at overcoming the health, economic and social crisis as well as the previous existing imbalances.
In this context, and considering a country like Spain, with a business structure characterized by the small business size, the involvement of Social Economy entities could be a guarantee for the good use of the European funding deployed, due to the resilience generated by the network of mutual support and the ability to promote collective projects that combine the economic with the social, favoring the development of spaces.
But, in this case, it seems that the weaknesses of many Social Economy entities, related to their small size, have been able to play against the sector. With the caution due to the data provisionality, it can be said that the pandemic has also truncated the growth trend in the business size of the sector. Of the different families of the Social Economy, and compared with the whole of the Spanish productive fabric, cooperatives have been the companies that have resisted the best, both in the number of companies and in employment, and labor societies the worst.

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 JULIÁ, J.F., BERNAL, E. & CARRASCO, I. (2022): “Social economy and economic recovery after the covid-19 crisis”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 104, 7-33. DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21734.

The impact of the covid-19 crisis on cooperatives and worker-owned firms in Spain in 2020: a sectorial shift-share analysis

Authors: Maite Cancelo, Emilia Vázquez, M. Rosario Díaz-Vázquez

Keywords: Cooperatives, Social Economy, Employment, Economic Crisis, sectoral shift-share analysis.

Econlit Keywords: J54, P13, C14.

DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21702.

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On 11 March 2020, the WHO declares that covid-19 is considered a pandemic, which has global economic effects. In Spain, the first response was to declare a state of alarm for the management of the health crisis on 14 March, as an instrument to limit the mobility of the population and, in this way, prevent its advance. Thus, the Spanish economy was practically paralysed in the first stage, with de-escalation being uneven across sectors. This provoked a major economic crisis with effects on employment. 

The aim of our work is to test two hypotheses. The first is to analyse whether the destruction of employment is less in Social Economy enterprises than in capitalist economy enterprises. The second hypothesis is whether the different impact of this crisis at sectoral level is also evident among Social Economy enterprises. 

To achieve these objectives, we analyse the year-on-year change in employment for all companies, cooperatives and worker-owned companies registered with the Social Security, at sectoral level in the second quarter of 2020 (when there were different levels of economic activity paralysis by sector), and we apply shift-share analysis to study the sectoral differences that have arisen due to the impact of the crisis. We observe a more resilient behaviour of employment in Spanish cooperatives and detect the differential impacts of the crisis at the sectoral level.

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CANCELO, M., VÁZQUEZ, E. & DÍAZ-VÁZQUEZ, M.R. (2022): “The impact of the covid-19 crisis on cooperatives and worker-owned firms in Spain in 2020: a sectorial shift-share analysis”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 104, 35-64. DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21702.

Factors affecting the adaptation of olive oil organizations to covid-19

Authors: Adoración Mozas Moral, Domingo Fernández Uclés

Keywords: Olive oil sector, COVID-19, digitization, ICT, organisational adaptation.

Econlit Keywords: P13, O33, Q55.

DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21767

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The covid-19 pandemic has had catastrophic effects on the global economy. The olive oil sector, whose producers were already undergoing their own crisis, has also clearly been affected by this situation. Despite Spain’s world leadership in olive oil production, the added value that this product can generate has not been maximized. Falling prices and supply saturation are the problems that have been most highlighted and to which covid-19 has added. Faced with such a situation, the digitalization of the olive mill has gone from being a recommendation to an essential factor in avoiding the paralysis of its activity. In this context, the objective of this study is to detect the organizational factors that have been associated with a better adaptation of the organizations to the current complex situation. To this end we have made use of the fuzzy sets Qualitative Comparative Analysis technique which makes it possible to contrast different variables in order to explain a result, overcoming the limitations of more traditional techniques. The results obtained reveal that the cooperative form, the degree of innovation, the training of the top managers and the flexibility and size of the organization are factors that contribute to a better adaptation of the olive mill to the situation caused by covid-19.

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MOZAS, A. & FERNÁNDEZ, D. (2022): “Factors affecting the adaptation of olive oil organizations to covid-19”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 104, 65-82. DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21767.

Creativity in Social Economy entities from a multiple case, mixed methodology perspective

Authors: Hayrold José Ureña Espaillat, Antonio Juan Briones Peñalver, Juan Andrés Bernal Conesa

Keywords: Employee creativity, Social Innovation (SI), Knowledge Management, Social Sustainability, Social Economy.

Econlit Keywords: J54, L31, O35, D83, D91, B55.

DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21721.

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The new models of creativity, knowledge and sustainability deserve to be known, even more so in Social Economy Entities (hereinafter SEEs) with a unitary management logic. This article, based on a multiple case study and using questionnaires focused on experts, has a priori the purpose of knowing their vision of the various institutional ecosystems that orbit around the thematic axes of the social economy, especially training centers and educational cooperatives. In the process, the stages of the Delphi methodology were used for the theoretical verification of the relationships and a refinement of the indicators. This was followed by a PLS SEM partial least squares regression analysis in order to make the statistical study testable.  The contribution of the article leads us to establish strategies in the field of sustainability of HEIs, through an empirical study, which were identified through the management of creativity in education cooperatives, NGOs and foundations related to specialized technical training.

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UREÑA-ESPAILLAT, H.J., BRIONES-PEÑALVER, A.J.B. & BERNAL-CONESA, J.A. (2022): “Creativity in Social Economy entities from a multiple case, mixed methodology perspective”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 104, 83-112. DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21721.

Towards a fair and inclusive energy transition: the contribution of the Social Economy to the formation of the European Energy Communities

Authors: Ekhi Atutxa Ordeñana, Ricardo Aguado Muñoz, Imanol Zubero Beascoechea

Keywords: Social Economy European Energy Communities, Commons paradigm, Energy policy, Fair and inclusive energy transition.

Econlit Keywords: D23, H4, Q43, Q48, R1.

DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21474.

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Once again, the great shutdown carried out to mitigate the impact of covid-19 has demonstrated the profound relationship between our socioeconomic system and the energy model. The impact this pandemic situation has created in the field of energy has reinforced the necessity of a transition towards a fairer and more inclusive model. In this context (March 2019, pre-covid), the European Commission is fostering an energy transition in which citizens should play a key role in order to achieve an affordable, safe, and sustainable energy system through the development of local energy communities. These community initiatives have government modes based on the promotion of the common good and, at the same time, they belong formally to the Social Economy. They have the potential to shape a more resilient energy model through the relocation of energy generation, the reduction of its consumption or the location of the citizen in the center through the socialization of the means of production. Using a thorough bibliographic review and the analysis of secondary data, the objective of this research is to present a conceptual framework to merge Social Economy and the Commons paradigm and apply this framework to the local energy communities promoted by the European Commission. Through the dialogue between the normative and applied principles of the Commons paradigm and those of the Social Economy, this research will develop a map of different spheres: public, private, social, and common. This map will justify the adoption of Social Economy as the proper form of organizing initiatives such as the European Energy Communities.

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ATUTXA, E., AGUADO, R. & ZUBERO, I. (2022): “Towards a fair and inclusive energy transition: the contribution of the Social Economy to the formation of the European Energy Communities”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 104, 113-141. DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21474.

How can the digitisation vector of recovery funds affect the social economy?

Authors: Ricardo J. Palomo Zurdo, Cristina Isabel Dopacio

Keywords: Recovery, Transformation and Resilience Plan (RTRP), Next Generation EU, social economy, agricultural sector, Blockchain, Artificial Intelligence, Digital Transformation.

Econlit Keywords: Q1, O31, O32, R1, R3, R5, H53.

DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21497.

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This work describes the components and lines of action of the Recovery, Transformation and Resilience Plan (RTRP) and the possible destination of the funds it comprises, with special incidence in significant sectors in the field of the social economy and companies, as is the case of the agricultural environment. Precisely, the opportunity to use these funds for projects related to rural areas and with a predominant drive. The adoption of technologies such as artificial intelligence, IoT connectivity, cloud computing or the traceability properties of blockchain can be a catalyst to face an evolution, transition, and even a revolution towards an “Agro 4.0 environment, in similarity with the current conceptualization of the so-called Industry 4.0. Although European funds do not distinguish between legal forms, it is necessary to analyze the funds allocated to some of the sectors where the social economy is more representative in Spain and, particularly, the case of the agricultural sector due to its multiple economic-social implications, such as the issue of depopulation (Emptied Spain), environmental preservation, job placement in rural areas and other derived areas.

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PALOMO, R.J. & ISABEL, C. (2022): “How can the digitisation vector of recovery funds affect the social economy?”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 104, 143-172. DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21497.

The cohesive role of the foundational sector in the face of the new normality. The situation in the Basque Country

Authors: Marta Enciso-Santocildes, Ramon Bernal Uribarrena, Alfonso Etxanobe Franco

Keywords: Foundations, Social Economy, covid-19, Social Cohesion, Social Transformation.

Econlit Keywords: L30, L31, M14.

DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21676.

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The foundation sector in the Basque Country carries out its activity in a variety of fields in line with the wide range set out in article 4-1 of the Basque Foundations Act, with the common element of serving purposes of general interest. This sector represents 13,045 annualized paid jobs, a turnover of more than 566 million euros, and a Gross Value Added (GVA) generated of 219 million euros. Since the declaration of the state of alarm in March 2020, a period of great uncertainty started in which organizations have had to deploy all their agility and creativity to respond to new situations requiring immediate action. It also arose the need to start working on the post-pandemic context, strategically rethinking organizations, imagining a future in which the pandemic would have left structural changes in their management and work organization models. This article will analyze how the pandemic has affected the Foundations in the Basque Country and their future prospects in this next post-pandemic context in order to fulfil their foundational aims and maintain their cohesive and supportive role. To this end, together with an analysis of the most recent literature on the analyses carried out on the pandemic and foundations and the social economy, an analysis of the foundation sector in the Basque Country, its features and specific situation will be carried out by means of surveys and in-depth interviews with social agents.

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ENCISO-SANTOCILDES, M., BERNAL, R. & ETXANOBE, A. (2022): “The cohesive role of the foundational sector in the face of the new normality. The situation in the Basque Country”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 104, 173-202. DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21676.

Social Economy and covid-19: An international approach

Authors: Juan Fernando Álvarez, Marie J. Bouchard, Carmen Marcuello

Keywords: Social Economy, International Approach, COVID-19.

Econlit Keywords: H89, M10.

DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21855.

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The health crisis caused by the covid-19 pandemic has affected the entire world population globally and the consequences have been different in each country. Predictably, the most vulnerable populations have suffered the most devastating consequences in terms of health, unemployment and increased inequality. In some countries the informal economy has become larger than the formal economy. The Social and Solidarity Economy (hereafter SSE) has also suffered the consequences caused by covid-19, but it has also been a response to the multiple situations that have occurred in all countries. The aim of this paper is to examine the role of the SSE at the international level by looking at two issues: one, to examine the responses of the SSE to the crisis caused by the covid-19 pandemic and two, to analyse the role of the SSE in future social and economic recovery. To this end, a comparative analysis is made of the responses, strategies and role of the social economy in different territories, Quebec, Colombia and Spain.

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ÁLVAREZ, J.F., BOUCHARD, M.J. & MARCUELLO, C. (2022): “Social Economy and covid-19: an international approach”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 104, 203-231. DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21855.

Portuguese social solidarity cooperatives between recovery and resilience in the context of covid-19: preliminary results of the COOPVID Project

Authors: Deolinda Meira, Ana Azevedo, Conceição Castro, Brízida Tomé, Ana Cláudia Rodrigues, Susana Bernardino, Ana Luísa Martinho, Mariana Curado Malta, Agostinho Sousa Pinto, Bruno Coutinho, Paulo Vasconcelos, Tiago Pimenta Fernandes, Ana Maria Bandeira, Ana Paula Rocha, Marlene Silva, Mafalda Gomes

Keywords: Social Solidarity Cooperatives, covid-19, Challenges, Impacts, Responses, Digital Transformation.

Econlit Keywords: K30, L20, O33, P13

DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21486.

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covid-19 posed several challenges to all organisations in general and to social solidarity cooperatives in particular. However, the challenges faced by these cooperatives have unique features arising from their special characteristics compared to other types of cooperatives. Therefore it is vital to study these challenges and the impacts of covid-19. This study has as main goal to understand those challenges and their impact. An exploratory study was undertaken by applying 11 interviews to 11 social solidarity cooperatives. The cooperatives were chosen to be heterogeneous among the existent cooperatives in Portugal. This study corresponds to the first phase of a project that is still underway. This article presents the main results of the content analysis of the data collected from the interviews. Data show cooperatives could promptly adapt and continue their mission under pressure from the pandemic despite the first difficulties encountered in a new and unknown situation, showing a capacity to adapt and serve their members. However, these members were also submitted to several increasing and new challenges. The adaptations were possible due to legal changes in the work organisation law, from layoff to telework, government support involving financial programs, VAT, and other tax relaxation, as well as due to human resources reorganisation and the cooperatives’ staff positive attitude towards the difficulties (both leaders and general workers). Differences between the social solidarity cooperatives under study concerning digital technologies showed that those already having some infrastructure had minor adapting difficulties.

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MEIRA, D. et al. (2022): “Portuguese social solidarity cooperatives between recovery and resilience in the context of covid-19: preliminary results of the COOPVID Project”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 104, 233-266. DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21486.

Effective hospital response to covid-19: evidence from social healthcare organizations in Brazil and Portugal

Authors: Gleison Lopes Fonseca, Antonio Juan Briones Peñalver, Pedro Fernandes da Anunciação

Keywords: Effective knowledge management, Organizational Intelligence, Organizational performance, Effective response, Partial least square (PLS), COVID-19.

Econlit Keywords: M10, M15, I10.

DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21758

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This study analyzes the impact of effective knowledge management, organizational intelligence, and organizational performance on the effective hospital response and social health to covid-19. Data were collected through a research questionnaire sent to physicians and nurses who worked in hospitals in Brazil and Portugal. We sent the survey link using a professional social network and 101 valid responses were obtained. The PLS-SEM analysis technique was used to test hypotheses. The results showed that there is a positive relationship between the constructs of effective knowledge management and organizational performance, and effective response to covid-19. This study also indicates that effective knowledge management has a positive association with organizational intelligence and organizational performance, in addition to a positive relationship between organizational intelligence and organizational performance. As practical implications, our research reinforces the importance of effective knowledge management for pandemic management and validates the relationships between effective knowledge management, organizational intelligence, organizational performance, and hospital response effectiveness. From these results, hospitals and social health organizations will be able to improve their effectiveness in responding to new disease outbreaks. As originality, this work presents a model to manage the response of these health care and hospital institutions to pandemics.

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LOPES, G., BRIONES, A.J. & FERNANDES DA ANUNCIAÇÃO, P. (2022): “Effective hospital response to covid-19: evidence from social healthcare organizations in Brazil and Portugal”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 104, 267-301. DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21758.

Senior cohousing in Spain. Changes from the Social Economy in accommodation and in economy of care for older people

Authors: Mª Ángeles Tortosa Chuliá, Gerdt Sundtröm

Keywords: Older people, cooperatives, senior cohousing, Collaborative accommodation, nursing homes, Spanish Recovery Plan from Covid-19.

Econlit Keywords: I31, J14, L31, P13, R31.

DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21435

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The advancement of senior cohousing is a push towards the modernization of housing and care for older people, and a challenge for present nursing homes. Cohousing has several years of experience in other European countries, and it is an attractive way of living for older people and/or families who want company and to share tasks. This article analyzes the growth of cohousing for older people in Spain from Third Sector, its barriers, and political impulses, and compares it with the experience in Sweden. Its functioning in Spain is incipient, and the Social Economy plays a key role.  There are few consolidated initiatives, and quite a few underway, but the progress is slow due to numerous administrative and financial obstacles. The Covid-19 pandemic has raised the demand for these accommodations and care alternative because they promote and facilitate social contacts, some of the the risks of nursing homes, and comply with sustainable development objectives (SDG). Both Spain and Sweden have a variety of co-housing types, with a big role for cooperatives, but in Sweden they are primarily seen as a type of housing, where older people share fewer activities and maintain their privacy. Recently, there is greater political interest in cohousing. The recovery plans of the Spanish government and some regulations of the Autonomous Communities and City Councils incorporate specific strategies on housing, for the Third Sector, and the care of older people (SAAD) that affects senior cohousing.

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TORTOSA, M.A. & SUNDSTRÖM, G. (2022): “El cohousing senior en España. Cambios desde la economía social en los alojamientos y en la economía de los cuidados para personas mayores”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 104, 303-331. DOI: 10.7203/CIRIEC-E.104.21435.