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CIRIEC Nº 109 November 2023

Cooperatives facing the crisis: Resilience Strategies in Mexico against COVID-19

Authors: Igor Antonio Rivera González, Herly Tatiana Rodríguez Reyes, Denise Díaz de León Bolaños

Keywords: COVID 19, Resilience, Cooperatives, Mexico City

Econlit Keywords: D26, L31, O35

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.20990

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Abstract

The sanitary COVID 19 pandemic has drastically changed economy, families, people’s relationships and society in general. Organizations, including social ones, have had to adapt to new ways of interactions in order to survive, and there are important examples of how these social organizations have faced the current crisis. This article seeks to analyze the strategies implemented by cooperatives to continue with their economic and social activities in the face of the sanitary pandemic. Specifically, five cases in Mexico City were examined, and each of them illustrates how the cooperative implemented new technologies, developed new knowledge, redistributed work, promoted advance purchases and formed alliances with other cooperatives. Some of the findings show the relationship between the strategies implemented and the principles and values of this kind of organizations, such as solidarity, mutual help, responsibility and intercooperation. Specifically, cooperatives that produce and sell healthy and agroecological food are more resilient to the crisis because they are more adaptable than textile, culture, and training organizations

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RIVERA, I.A., RODRÍGUEZ, H.T. & DÍAZ DE LEÓN, D. (2023): “Cooperatives facing the crisis: Resilience Strategies in Mexico against COVID-19”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 109, 5-34.

Challenges in the regeneration of large cooperative groups: a case study of Mondragon

Authors: Aingeru Ruiz, Ignacio Bretos

Keywords: Degeneration, regeneration, worker cooperatives, large scale, cooperative network, participation.

Econlit Keywords: D23, J54, L25, M14.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.25438

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The previous literature has focused almost exclusively on understanding cooperative degeneration, paying little attention to the phenomenon of regeneration, which has primarily been addressed from a theoretical standpoint. This article provides a longitudinal analysis of a regenerative process undertaken within the Mondragon group, one of the most relevant and influential cooperative groups in the world. The large organizational size and geographical dispersion that characterize most cooperatives in this group imply a much more complex regeneration process than that involved in small- and medium-sized cooperatives that operate exclusively on a local scale. The theoretical framework of the research is based on the cooperative degeneration and regeneration theses, as well as on recent contributions in the field of the cooperative life cycle theory. The study highlights the challenges of reintroducing democratic governance mechanisms in large cooperatives competing in global markets, as well as the effect of geographical dispersion on the decline of a sense of belonging among the parent coop worker-members. Overall, this article contributes to a fundamental line of research focused on the organizational evolution of cooperatives in the face of a rapidly changing, competitive, and globalized market context.

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RUIZ, A. & BRETOS, I. (2023): “Challenges in the regeneration of large cooperative groups: a case study of Mondragon”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 109, 35-63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.25438

Close to me. Intercooperation between Cooperative Retailers, Local Food Suppliers and Public Institutions to boost Regional Agrifood Systems. The case of Eroski

Authors: Josu Santos-Larrazabal, Imanol Basterretxea

Keywords: Regional agrifood system, cooperative retailer, supply chain, public policy, intercooperation, Mondragon.

Econlit Keywords: Q13, Q18, R11, R58

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.26008

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This paper analyses the intercooperation between public administration, small agricultural producers and the supermarket cooperative Eroski in the Basque and Navarre to promote a local agrifood system. Through a case study with 22 interviews with different members of the system, certain advantages and limitations of intercooperation are identified. The retailer emerges as the main agent with the potential to drive the supply of the local agro-livestock sector and promote its professionalisation through the formation of agricultural cooperatives and other associative networks. The relevance of a correct organisational culture alignment between the retailer and its suppliers and the influence of codependence and power imbalances between these two parties are highlighted. The case offers clues to other retailers who are interested in improving their local positioning, to small local producers wishing to develop their business in a sustainable way with large scale distribution, and to public institutions wishing to promote local agrifood systems in collaboration with large retailers.

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SANTOS-LARRAZABAL, J. & BASTERRETXEA, I. (2023): “Close to me. Intercooperation between Cooperative Retailers, Local Food Suppliers and Public Institutions to boost Regional Agrifood Systems. The case of Eroski”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 109, 65-97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.26008.

The cooperative as an alternative for collective entrepreneurship. Its presence and promotion in Andalusian public universities

Authors: Antonio Manuel Ciruela-Lorenzo, Juan José Plaza-Angulo, Samuel Medina Claros

Keywords: Cooperatives, entrepreneurship, collective entrepreneurship, public universities, Andalusia.

Econlit Keywords: P13, A20, I29, L26.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.24079

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Universities play a crucial role in the development of a society’s entrepreneurial spirit. Among the different vehicular entrepreneurship alternatives, there is one with unique characteristics that is the cooperative. However, very few of the new companies created in the university environment are cooperatives, entities promoted by public institutions because they constitute an effective tool for entrepreneurship that places the individual at the centre of its structure to combine economic and social interests. This paper analyses the presence of cooperativism in the academic and entrepreneurial reality of the public universities of Andalusia, one of the regions with more entrepreneurs, university students, and where cooperativism has been most promoted by political institutions. To this end, we analyse the academic offer of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees at nine Andalusian public universities and conduct in-depth interviews with the heads and technical staff of the entrepreneurship services at these universities, using inductive and qualitative methodologies. The results show a scarce and improvable presence of cooperativism in the curricula of the analysed degrees, as well as a management by the entrepreneurship services not directly oriented towards collective initiatives or, therefore, towards cooperativism, of which there is also a clear understanding of cooperativism. This means that potential university entrepreneurs are previously unaware of both the cooperative model and cooperative values and principles. In view of this situation, a comprehensive plan is proposed based on the interaction of university entrepreneurship services with the teaching staff and institutions that encourage and promote cooperativism.

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CIRUELA-LORENZO, A.M., PLAZA-ANGULO, J.J. & MEDINA, S. (2023): “The cooperative as an alternative for collective entrepreneurship. Its presence and promotion in Andalusian public universities ”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 109, 99-128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.24079.

Social Economy, Critical Management Studies and University: A case study of the Social Economy Lab

Authors: Ignacio Bretos, Millán Díaz-Foncea, Carmen Marcuello

Keywords: Social economy, social entrepreneurship, critical management studies, organizational theory, university.

Econlit Keywords: A20, I23, M14, P13.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.22979

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An important yet barely explored line of research lies in elucidating how to enhance the critical performativity of Critical Management Studies (CMS) from higher education institutions. To address this question, in this article we present a case study of the Social Economy Laboratory (LAB_ES), a space created at the University of Zaragoza for the university community to experiment with initiatives and projects organized around the principles and values of the Social Economy. Specifically, the article identifies and delves into three key lines of action to promote the critical performativity of CMS from higher education spaces: (i) raising awareness among the university community of the existence of alternative forms of organization and management that are more democratic, humanistic, emancipatory, and socially responsible; (ii) developing closer collaboration between the university community and other stakeholders to collectively generate relevant and useful knowledge for social transformation; and (iii) promoting the engagement of students in alternative organization and management projects. In a context of under-representation of the Social Economy in the official curricula and research structures of Spanish higher education institutions, the article also draws some practical implications aimed at promoting training, dissemination and consultancy on Social Economy from spaces created within the boundaries of the university, but organized outside its institutional and bureaucratic rigidity.

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BRETOS, I., DÍAZ-FONCEA, M. & MARCUELLO, C. (2023): “Social Economy, Critical Management Studies and University: A case study of the Social Economy Lab”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 109, 129-158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.22979

Corporate Social Responsibility in Credit Unions seen from Carroll Pyramid Model: A qualitative study in Colombia

Authors: Mónica López-Santamaría, Merlin Patricia Grueso Hinestroza, Juan Fernando Álvarez Rodríguez

Keywords: Credit Unions, Social Balance Report, Cooperative Principles, Social and Solidarity Economy, Social Responsibility, Carroll’s Pyramid.

Econlit Keywords: L33, M14, Q01.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.24799

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One of the main limitations of Carroll Pyramid Model is that it does not consider the differences in the dynamics of each business sector; nor has there been an adequate theoretical justification of the relative relevance of each of the four dimensions that compose it. This study explores the Social Responsibility practices reported by Credit Unions from the Carroll’s Pyramid for a) establishing what type of information (economic, legal, ethical or discretionary) they are privileging in their Social Balance Sheet reports and b) recognizing to what extent there are differences in the way the model is expressed in this economic sector. To accomplish this, a qualitative research study was conducted through a content analysis of the social balance reports of 20 Colombian Credit Unions. The results show that the Carroll’s Pyramid can adopt another type of order in the dimensions that compose it (economic, legal, ethical and discretionary), depending on the economic sector being studied or the type of organization being explored, however, differences found regarding Carroll’s model were not radical as the differences found in other research which found a fully inverted pyramid. These findings pose challenges for cooperative organizations regarding compliance with the 2030 agenda and the mandatory annual report of Social Balance Sheet in Colombia.

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LÓPEZ-SANTAMARÍA, M., GRUESO, M.P. & ÁLVAREZ, J.F. (2023): “Corporate Social Responsibility in Credit Unions seen from Carroll Pyramid Model: A qualitative study in Colombia”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 109, 159-184. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.24799

Sustainable Development Goal in the beekeeping sector and its cooperative network

Authors: Jimena Andrieu, Enrique Bernal-Jurado, Adoración Mozas-Moral, Domingo Fernández-Uclés

Keywords: SDGs, cooperativism, social economy, innovation, honey production.

Econlit Keywords: L10, M140, O13, O32, P13, Q13

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.27026

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The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a global priority in terms of commitment to the responsible development of society. This paper focuses on beekeeping as a strategic sector of the Argentine economy due to its important socio-economic and environmental impacts. The objective of this research is to analyze the practices of beekeeping entities in their alignment with the achievement of the SDGs (with a focus on SDGs 5, 8, 9, 12 and 17), paying special attention to the differential contribution of companies with cooperative formula. It focuses on actions related to work organization, production, innovation and market insertion. To this end, we used variable significance analysis for 2×2 matrices and multivariate factor analysis of multiple correspondences. The results obtained show that there is a positive alignment between the practices of beekeeping sector entities and SDG 5, SDG 12 and SDG 17, with a differential and positive trend for organizations with a cooperative formula. However, the results also show the future challenges faced by the sector, especially with regard to SDGs 8 and 9.

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ANDRIEU, J., BERNAL-JURADO, E., MOZAS-MORAL, A. & FERNÁNDEZ-UCLÉS, D. (2023): “Sustainable Development Goal in the beekeeping sector and its cooperative network”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 109, 185-212. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.27026.

Analysis of corporate volunteering in Spain through a SWOT model

Authors: Ana Lor Serrano, Mª Luisa Esteban Salvador

Keywords: SWOT, CAME, Company volunteering.

Econlit Keywords: M14, M19, L29, L39

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.25085

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Corporate volunteering is gaining strength within the framework of corporate social responsibility. Through an analysis of weaknesses, threats, strengths and opportunities (SWOT), the aim is to delve into the various negative aspects that can be associated with this type of practice in order to mitigate or even eliminate them, as well as to propose how to promote the positive aspects: use the opportunities and make the strengths known in order to enhance them, allowing policies to reach their maximum development. A comparative analysis is also presented in order to correct, confront, maintain and exploit (CAME) the results, and thus propose improvements in corporate volunteering and facilitate the implementation of this type of policy by business organizations. Under the Spanish legislative framework, corporate volunteering is presented as a scarcely developed practice, however, it has important opportunities and strengths that justify the push for its implementation by companies, given its proven benefits, although the possible adverse effects that could be generated as a result of its misuse, not only for companies, but also for workers and in general for all stakeholders involved, should not be ignored.

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LOR, A. & ESTEBAN, M.L. (2023): “Analysis of corporate volunteering in Spain through a SWOT model”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 109, 213-244. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.25085

The social capital of rural productive organizations of the social economy

Authors: Juanita Salinas Vásquez, María Urgilés Salinas, Susana Sastre-Merino

Keywords: Local development, social network, associations, cooperatives.

Econlit Keywords: J54, P13, P32, P25, Q13

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.25065

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The constructivist approach to community development recognizes the transformative and innovative role of the social aspect (social capital) of social economic organizations, to promote inclusive processes of resource mobilization and management of the commons. The research identifies relational strengths and weaknesses in rural productive organizations of the social economy of the province of Manabí-Ecuador, through the assessment of social capital. The methodology applied to assess social capital incorporates components of the institutional, cognitive and structural dimension, in three areas of analysis: territorial context, profile of the organization and relationship between members. At the territorial level, the limited coverage of public services affects all organizations, makes living conditions precarious, makes relationships difficult and confines development opportunities. The assessment of the organizational profile shows strengths to establish roles, rules and procedures and weakness in the construction of networks with external actors. For the relationship between members, the difficulty lies in maintaining a shared vision and sanctioning opportunistic behavior. Therefore, identifying the differences in the relational conditions of organizations, according to the level of social capital endowment, it is useful to guide the formulation of practical intervention strategies that promote local development through the strengthening of associations and cooperatives.

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SALINAS, J., URGILÉS, M. & SASTRE-MERINO, S. (2023): “The social capital of rural productive organizations of the social economy”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 109, 245-284. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.25065.

Transformation of associative entities into social enterprises in their scaling up process. The financial perspective of the sports third sector

Authors: Antonio González-Rojas, Rafael Chaves Ávila

Keywords: Non-profit entities, sports organizations, financial structure, scaling up, sports clubs.

Econlit Keywords: D71, L31, Z23.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.26620

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This paper analyzes the relationship between size, age and scaling up processes in the sports third sector entities of the Valencian Region to find the patterns that lead them to grow and become social enterprises. The study is based on a field survey of 520 organizations. The results show that the majority of entities maintain simple organizational models and rudimentary financial structures that do not allow them to start growth processes, maintaining their original size. However, a smaller percentage of organizations (approximately 25%) enter in expansion processes, developing more complex financial structures, diversifying their sources of financing, generating mostof job creation in the sector and increasing their socioeconomic impact. Within these organizations, a total of three differentiated models have been found, the first arises from the alliance with public administrations, obtaining an important part of financing from the public sector and focusing its activities on offering sports services to citizens; the second is oriented to commercialize sports goods and services, obtaining a significant part of its funds from the market; thirdly, there are also organizations with a balance between their own, public and market financing, which show greater robustness by avoiding excessive dependencies on specific sources. Finally, the presence of a hybrid growth mechanism has been identified that is initially supported by public resources to boost and allow the internal development necessary to achieve the conversion of these organizations into social enterprises.

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GONZÁLEZ-ROJAS, A. & Chaves, R. (2023): “Transformation of associative entities into social enterprises in their scaling up process. The financial perspective of the sports third sector”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 109, 285-315. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.26620.

Social spending and multidimensional Poverty in Ecuador

Authors: Diego García-Vélez, José Javier Núñez-Velázquez

Keywords: Multidimensional poverty, Public Spending, Social spending, Fuzzy sets, Ecuador.

Econlit Keywords: E62, H53, I32

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.22949

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One of the main policy instruments to fight poverty, especially in developing countries, is the public spending in sectors as education, health, and social welfare. In Ecuador, the amount of these three sectors has experienced a growing trend from 2008. Consequently, our objective is to identify the effect of public spending on multidimensional poverty in Ecuador, therefore, a multidimensional poverty index based in fuzzy sets theory is applied, analyzing it as a degree of deprivation rather than an attribute of presence or absence, we construct a poverty profile and estimate a multinomial probit model with a pool of provincial data for the period 2009-2017. Our main results show that poverty is reduced in the study period, but that not all population groups have benefited to the same extent, in addition that social welfare spending has significant effects on multidimensional poverty, but health and education spending are not significant. These results suggest that public policies should be applied in two ways, one to combat poverty and the other to close the gaps, which leads to the execution of more and better public spending on social welfare.

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GARCÍA-VÉLEZ, D. & NÚÑEZ-VELÁZQUEZ, J.J. (2023): “Social spending and multidimensional Poverty in Ecuador”, CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa, 109, 317-347. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.109.22949.