CIRIEC Nº 75 August 2012
ISBN: 84-95003-95-3 / 978-84-95003-95-9
Social Enterprises and Social Economy / Empresas Sociales y Economía Social
Social responsibility and accountability in work integration social enterprises. The case of the Balearic Islands
Authors: Antoni Socias Salvà and Patricia Horrach Rosselló
Keywords: Social responsibility, accounting, social and solidarity economy enterprises.
Econlit Keywords: M140, M410, L310.
Work integration social enterprises constitute a subsector of the social economy. They are organizations that operate on the market, incorporating the concept of solidarity into their corporate purpose. Essentially, this implies helping to improve the financial and social conditions of disadvantaged groups. The fact that solidarity economy companies apply management principles which are in line with the concept of corporate social responsibility led us to analyze their effective application level in work integration social enterprises in the Balearic Islands, in their strategies, management and external communications. Furthermore, one of the requirements of social responsibility is the provision of information on the company’s social and environmental impacts. Consequently, we also analyzed the voluntary disclosure of social and environmental information by work integration social enterprises in the Balearic Islands and the variables that determine the level of disclosure.
Social enterprises and assessment of their social impact
Authors: Millán Díaz Foncea, Carmen Marcuello y Chaime Marcuello
Keywords: Social enterprises, work integration social enterprises, social impact, methodology.
Econlit Keywords: L260, D710.
Social enterprises have an increasingly high profile and are achieving greater recognition by the authorities and society in general. At the same time, they face the challenge of presenting their results in a way that shows their social and economic impact. This paper aims to review the methods for analysing socioeconomic impact and its realisation in social enterprises, with particular reference to work integration social enterprises. The essential contribution of this paper is to give an integrated view of the activities and results of work integration social enterprises, one of the social enterprise models that has seen most development in Europe.
Presentación del monográfico 'Empresas Sociales y Economía Social'
Authors: José Luis Monzón y Carmen Marcuello
'Social Enterprises and Social Economy'. Introduction
Authors: José Luis Monzón and Carmen Marcuello
The intention behind this monographic issue of ‘CIRIEC-España, Revista de Economía Pública, Social y Cooperativa’ is to review the state of play in research on social businesses and the new challenges they face. We therefore enlisted contributions from experts with a Europe-wide reputation who have provided the overall framework and description of social enterprises as an integral part of the broad picture of the social economy. We then widened the net to include papers assessing European policies and a selection of articles that allow us to include such relevant issues, we believe, as entrepreneurship, measuring social impact, funding models and strategic management, and empirical analyses of cases such as special employment centres and work integration social enterprises, as well as new models and trends in ethical banking and fair trade certification.
The EMES Approach of Social Enterprise in a Comparative Perspective
Authors: Jacques Defourny y Marthe Nyssens
Keywords: Social enterprises, social entrepreneurship, European approach, United States approach, concepts.
Econlit Keywords: P130, I310, L260.
Our analysis is structured as follows: In the first part, we describe the different schools of thought in which the concepts took root and their respective contexts in Europe and the US. In the second part, we analyse the EMES conception, which is rooted in the historical European third sector tradition. This analysis paves the way for the third part, in which we examine the conceptual convergences and divergences among the different schools as well as their implications for the debate. Beyond conceptual debates, the article emphasises the place and role of social enterprise in the overall economy and its interaction with the market, civil society and public policies. In the last section, we consider how the different schools have influenced the debate in various parts of the world.
The emergence, institutionalisation and challenges of social enterprises: the Italian experience
Authors: Carlo Borzaga and Sara Depedri
Keywords: Social enterprises, Italy, emergence, social innovation, social cooperatives, institutionnalisation, laws.
Econlit Keywords: P130, I310, L260.
Italy is one of the few countries with a law on social cooperatives and a law on social enterprises. Even though both laws seem quite similar, their levels of success have been drastically different. The understanding of the different outcomes of the two laws can help in evaluating the process of institutionalisation amongst social enterprises. This is the main aim of the present paper that starts by describing the process of institutionalisation of social cooperatives. It follows presenting data on the diffusion of social cooperatives, especially through looking at the stocks of existing social cooperatives, their characteristics and their social and economic impact. It describes the main characteristics of the new law on social enterprises and introduces the first data on their diffusion. It explains the reasons of the different levels of success of social cooperatives and social enterprises in Italy. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief discussion on the prospects and new challenges for social cooperatives and social enterprises.
The EU initiative to create a favourable climate for social enterprises and their links with the social economy: an approach to their conceptual delimitation
Authors: Marta Enciso Santocildes, Laura Gómez Urquijo y Aitziber Mugarra Elorriaga
Keywords: Social enterprise, social business, social economy, crisis, European Union, social cohesion, inclusive development.
Econlit Keywords: P130, M140, L200, L310, D780, I300, D600.
In November 2011 the European Commission presented a new proposal required by the Single Market Act in its ‘Social Business Initiative – Creating a favourable climate for social enterprises communication’. The background to this initiative is the evolution that has led the EU to recognize the various forms of enterprise and support the ecosystem that each of them needs in order to conduct its business and contribute to sustainable economic development and cohesion. This article analyzes the economic and social environment out of which this initiative grew and the international context in relation to social business. Finally, it looks at the still-developing concept of these businesses and their links with the social economy.
Social Business and European policies: social services of general economic interest
Authors: María Pilar Alguacil Marí
Keywords: State aid, social services, services of general economic interest, social business, social economy.
Econlit Keywords: H290, H430, D490, D710, J540.
Social enterprises and their activities have a bearing on a number of European Union policies, as highlighted in the recent Communication from the Commission on this type of venture. Also, public support or special tax treatment for such companies, particularly when they provide social services, may be relevant in relation to European competition law, especially regarding the treatment of State aid. Classifying these social services as services of general economic interest has an undeniable impact on the legal treatment of such aid. The rules on exceptions for this type of aid to compensate public service obligations have recently been amended, so this is a good time to reflect on the subject.
European social entrepreneurship funds and their application in Spain
Authors: Mercedes Valcárcel Dueñas
Keywords: Social venture capital, social entrepreneurship, socially responsible investment.
Econlit Keywords: O160, G240.
The main issue for European social businesses is getting the finance they need to grow. Support for specialist social entrepreneurship funds is therefore needed. With this objective, in December 2011 the European Commission presented proposals for European Social Entrepreneurship Fund regulations. The main features are: Create a European label for social entrepreneurship funds; improve information for investors, standardising its basic content, and break down barriers to fundraising across Europe without incurring major additional costs. The first venture capital fund for social businesses in Spain is currently being set up and launched. It will be able to apply for the European social entrepreneurship funds label.
Entrepreneurship and the social economy: opportunities and effects on a changing society
Authors: Francisco Salinas Ramos y Lourdes Osorio Bayter
Keywords: Social economy, social entrepreneurship, social enterprise, community, society, entrepreneurs.
Econlit Keywords: A100, A120, A140, H000, I250.
The economic, financial and identity crisis, with its serious social, political and cultural consequences for broad swathes of society, particularly young people, women and those at risk of social exclusion, is an opportunity for social economy enterprises in general and cooperatives in particular to be the agents of change. This article shows that solidarity entrepreneurship is one of the ways of creating jobs and achieving an alternative socio-economic development model that include and improve social welfare, particularly among men and women who are excluded from the labour market; that the alliance between the academic, government, community and enterprise spheres is bearing fruit by creating jobs for graduates and boosting the development of local communities; and that the most suitable formula for associative entrepreneurship is through the different forms of enterprise that the social/solidarity economy offers. The solidarity enterprise sector is found to have become a means to guarantee opportunities and new alternatives to improve the quality of life for a large section of society.
Social entrepreneurs and e-empowerment through virtual networks
Authors: Alfonso C. Morales-Gutiérrez, J. Antonio Ariza-Montes y Noel M. Muñiz Rodríguez
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship, new technologies, innovation, virtual networks, e-empowerment.
Econlit Keywords: L260, D710, O320.
A relatively recent generation of social entrepreneurs has understood, very noticeably, that using new technologies generates innovation and multiplies social impact. The link between social entrepreneurship and information and communication technologies (ICTs) explains why the latest advances in support of social enterprises have centred on setting up virtual and physical sites devoted to creating social value through comprehensive development of intelligent ICT tools and a competent network of public and private participants, linked internationally. The present paper examines the most innovative experiences of social entrepreneur empowerment, identifying those that use the new ICTs most efficiently and effectively to offer their services and reach an almost unlimited number of beneficiaries. In this way, forty-one experiences of supporting entrepreneurial activities of a social nature have been identified around the world. A comprehensive analysis has identified shared behaviour patterns that highlight emerging trends in the field of social entrepreneurship and standards that will make it easier for future entrepreneurs to follow this path.
Social enterprises: an empirical approach to their strategic management. The case of Valencia
Authors: Esther Villajos Girona, Joan Ramon Sanchis Palacio y Domingo Ribeiro Soriano
Keywords: Social economy, work integration social enterprise, competitiveness, strategic management, social entrepreneurship.
Econlit Keywords: L260, L300, M100.
The various types of social enterprise include Work Integration Social Enterprises (WISEs), which have to compete in the market from a position of inferiority. This paper first examines different aspects of WISE management, emphasising the use of strategic management tools. After defining the theoretical aspects of WISEs and social management, it continues with an empirical study that focuses on WISEs in the Valencia region of Spain in connection with the main management variables in these enterprises. The results highlight the low levels of professional management skills and strategic analysis tool use. Strategic management therefore needs to be introduced into WISEs, while taking into account their peculiarities in the case of the Valencia region.
Special employment centres as a mechanism of transition to the ordinary labour market
Authors: María José Calderón Milán y Beatriz Calderón Milán
Keywords: Special employment centers; people with disabilities; Continuous Sample of Working Lives; job history; sheltered employment; work enclaves; supported employment.
Econlit Keywords: C250, J140, J210, J490.
Special Employment Centers (SEC) are a kind of sheltered employment that is designed to ease the integration of people with disabilities into the ordinary labor market. In recent years, however, there has been a number of criticisms that such centers contribute to the segregation of people with disabilities so that rather than being a bridge, they have become a final destination for disabled workers. Consequently, the aim of this study is to determine the extent to which SECs ensure the transition from sheltered to ordinary employment of people with disabilities. We built an econometric model to determine which social and labor factors allow people with disabilities to move from SECs to ordinary companies. Our basic data source was the 2009 edition of the Spanish Social Security’s Continuous Sample of Working Lives (MCVL2009). We found empirical evidence of the role of SECs in enabling a high percentage of people with disabilities to join the labor market and then make the transition to ordinary companies.
Ethical Banking in Europe: approaching credit as a criterion for shaping an alternative space
Authors: Pedro M. Sasia Santos
Keywords: Ethical Banking, Ethical Finances, right to credit, Social Economy, Solidarity Economy, Fiare Project.
Econlit Keywords: G010, G210, L310, P130.
This article examines the Ethical Banking sector in Europe, looking for the main characteristics that define it. The analysis is based on how ethical banks address the question of the right to credit. In the light of this analysis, the basic elements that delineate the boundaries of ethical finances are presented, together with coincidences between some of these and the basic features of the Social Economy and the Solidarity Economy. The article ends with a brief reference to the Fiare Project, an ethical banking experience currently under development in Spain that builds on a wide network of social organizations, noting its characteristics with regard to the aforementioned frame of analysis.
Fair Trade certification programmes and labels: a neo-institutional reading with Canadian illustrations
Authors: Juan Francisco Núñez y Sylvie Berthelot
Keywords: Fair trade, certification programmes and labels, neo-institutionalism, organizational legitimacy, Canada.
Econlit Keywords: Q010, Q130, Q170, F180, M140.
The market niche created by Fair Trade (FT), based on principles of solidarity and cooperation, has been partially occupied by large multinational corporations. These companies deploy certification programmes and labels as means of insertion into the FT market. This paper provides an analysis and critique of six independent FT certification programmes identified in the Canadian marketplace. We also offer evidence from two corporate certification programmes in the same market that share the same sustainability concepts and deal in the same product: coffee. Through a neo-institutional perspective, we seek to shed light upon the confusion and ambiguity generated by the presence of multiple FT labels and certification programmes. Finally, we propose a taxonomy of the FT labels and certification programmes found in Canada as an indicator that may be useful for making purchasing decisions concerning FT products.